Soil and climate
Grown on variety of soils ranging from poor degraded, eroded, gravelly, saline and alkaline soils. Productivity is higher in red loamy, deep well drained soils. The absolute maximum temperature varies from 36-47.50 C and the absolute minimum temperature varies from 0-17.50 C. Rainfall requirement – 750-1900 mm. Altitude – up to 100 m above MSL.
June – December is found to be optimum.
Seeds / Grafts
Nursery: Fresh seeds are sown in nursery beds in March – April. Soaking of seeds in 10 per cent cow urine or in cow dung solution (500 g in 10 l of water) for 24 hours. Two year old seedlings are transplanted to the main field.
Softwood grafting: March- April
Air Layering: Shoots treated with IBA 4000 ppm.
8-10m x 8-10m is adopted.
The grafts should be planted in the pits of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m filled with FYM and top soil. Add 50 g of Methyl parathion 1.3% dust in the pit. Immediately after planting, support the graft with stakes.
Regular watering should be given once in seven days.
Apply 200:150:250 g of NPK per tree per year along with 25 kg of FYM and 2 kg of Neem cake.
- Remove the rootstock sprouts.
- Remove the dried and diseased parts.
- Intercrops like leguminous crops, short duration vegetables, annual drumstick, sesamum and sorghum may be raised in the alley spaces up to four years.
Early training is necessary to form a high head and uniform scaffold branches in all directions.